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New technologies are increasingly being used in the world today. Let's talk about the most technologically advanced buildings currently on the planet.
Al-Bahar Moving Towers (Abu Dhabi, 2012). Recently, there has been a trend in the construction of high-rise buildings in Asia. In Europe and the USA, they no longer chase after floors and meters, focusing on the manufacturability of their solutions. Against this background, the two towers of Al-Bahar in Abu Dhabi look amazing. Twins' high-rise buildings with 29 floors have a rather traditional facade, but they refute the very concept of real estate. The fact is that the facades of these buildings can move. This decision was not accidental - this is how the engineers decided to protect the premises inside buildings from the heat outside. As a result, a kind of golden honeycomb cover was placed on top of the facade, which, depending on the light, open and close. The degree of opening of these cells is determined by the computer. They are completely open in the morning and close at noon. It should be noted that this is not the only case when modern efficient technologies are hidden behind traditional Arab architecture. For example, the famous French architect Jean Nouvel, when designing the Agbar office complex in Barcelona in 2004 and the Doha tower in 2012, used similar solutions. The facades of his buildings seem to be wrapped in a thrown veil. Traditional windows are either not visible at all, or they are scattered chaotically. Thanks to solar sensors, the transparency of the cover can be controlled, which helps to more economically air-conditioned offices.
HSBC Bank (Norman Foster, Hong Kong, 1986). This skyscraper has an unusual appearance, it resembles a coat rack. The project originated in 1986, Norman Foster, under the slogan "building is technology", came up with a strange publication. Although ordinary skyscrapers had a majestic appearance, they were still not without a few problems. It was inconvenient to move in such buildings, they also lacked fresh air, and there was no question of modernization. Foster took up the challenge. The 47-storey skyscraper in Hong Kong was designed for about five years, but the construction took only two years. This speed is due to the advance construction of building elements at factories in the USA, Japan and England. At the construction site, the blocks were simply assembled. It practically turned out that all the rooms, which were made of lightweight structures, hung on the frame, as if on a hanger. But such a project made internal changes and modernization much easier. And inside the building, Foster created several 10-story tall atriums. This made it possible to improve the internal circulation of air masses, which led to savings in ventilation systems. And the main transport means were not elevators at all, of which there are 28 pieces, but a whole system of 62 escalators that connect the levels in the building. Similar problems were addressed in London by the author of the Pompidou Center in Paris, Richard Rogers. He built the 14-story Lloyd Building. As in Paris, the interior space is used to the maximum. The building was literally turned inside out. Pipes, stairs and elevators are located outside the facade. The inner atrium is naturally lit, which saves on electricity. For 25 years now, both of these buildings have been high-tech classics, pointing out the architects' direction for further development.
Olympic Aquatic Center (Zaha Hadid, London, 2011). Whereas the previous prototype was created taking into account future internal redevelopment, the London Olympic Aquatic Center was made taking into account the opposite objectives. This building is designed to be quickly disassembled and rebuilt. Responsible for the design was Zaha Hadid, one of the main creative architects of our time. The project appeared in her head back in 2004, according to it, a water stadium with 2500 seats with three pools was supposed to appear. Externally, a modern building should look like some kind of fantastic iron. However, the London Olympics changed these plans. At the water stadium, collapsible stands, similar to wings, were also installed. Thanks to them, the pool accommodated an additional 15 thousand spectators. It also housed the latest television system that broadcast the competition. Although the center looks futuristic, its main details were prefabricated in the precast concrete factory. As a result, the water center was assembled quickly, like a designer, in just a year. Thanks to this design, the building is now easily rebuilt. The central part and stands will be removed, and the removed elements can be reused. The renovated swimming pool will open in 2014.
ZCB Mansion (Ronald Lu, Hong Kong, 2012). Smart homes and green buildings appear like mushrooms after rain. The name of this mansion by Ronald Lou stands for "zero carbon dioxide building". This is a kind of manifesto for the protection of nature, which makes the most of green technologies. Even electricity is generated here from waste. The building frame is made from recycled materials. It has small facades from the west and east. The symmetrical roof is covered with solar panels, which not only protects the building, but also helps it self-shadow. The northern facade is almost constantly blown by the wind, which makes it possible to use natural ventilation. With smart home orientation and intelligent climate control, energy savings of up to 45% can be achieved. If there is not enough energy from the sun, then you can use biodiesel. Ideally, the house should use less energy per year than it produces. The surplus will go to the general city energy system, gradually compensating for the carbon dioxide that was generated during the construction of the building.
30 St Mary Ax (Norman Foster, London, 2004). When creating this "London cucumber" Norman Foster strove to make it as effective as possible. Thus was born the tower, which is under the protection of the air. The energy consumption in it is half that of similar structures. The buildings are made in the form of a grid of triangles. This structure makes the 41-story skyscraper both graceful and resilient. It also saves interior space. It is organized here so as to make the building energy efficient. Each floor of a skyscraper looks like a six-leafed one. The atriums used by Foster in Hong Kong are brought out to the façade and look like heat pipes. Through them, air moves freely between floors. This allowed the original solution to the issue of ventilation in the building. The air also acts as an interlayer that prevents the skyscraper from heating up in summer and protects it in winter, without interfering with natural light. A similar idea was applied by Foster a couple of years later at Hirst Tower in New York. This skyscraper is also designed as a mesh structure. This shape saves up to 20% steel during construction, not to mention the increased use of natural light. The thermostat here is the most commonplace rainwater flowing through heat pipes. The tower created according to these principles turned out to be at least 25% more effective than analogues.
Media Library (Toyo Ito, Sendai, 2001). Both skyscrapers and earthquakes are relevant for Japan. That is why a glass house appeared that is not afraid of such natural disasters. The Japanese come to the conclusion that paper books have already outlived their time, while the modern library is turning from a repository of information into a kind of its distributor. Architects have been trying to solve this problem since the beginning of the century, but the Japanese Toyo Ito did the best. The architect designed a building in Sendai, which not only develops the idea of a modern information source, but itself seems to be woven from various modern technical solutions. From the outside, the library appears as a glass cube seven stories high. Some facades are transparent and let in daylight, while others are covered with aluminum leaves that reflect excess heat. Each floor has its own, special layout, which differs from others. The chaotic system of pipes running through the floors is to blame for this. On the other hand, they intertwine the structure so that they take on its weight, helping to withstand earthquakes. The pipes also contain all the main communications, including elevators and stairs. In addition to all this, pipes also perform functions for controlling the microclimate. Thanks to them, air and water flow through the building.
Sony City Osaki office (Nikken Sekkei, Tokyo, 2012). What is an office without air conditioning? And what is an air conditioner without electricity? The Japanese have proven that this is possible. The new office of one of the many divisions of Sony outwardly does not stand out from among the same thousand high-rise buildings. But this is a rather interesting and unusual ecological project. Solar panels are located on the south side of the building, the roof serves as a collection of rainwater, and the internal layout is specially made so that employees suffer as little as possible from sunlight. Most importantly, the east facade of the building is a huge evaporator. This Japanese office breaks all stereotypes about this type of building and its arrangement. Here, regular elements are used in a new way. Porous clay pipes run around the eastern facade, and accumulated rainwater flows through them. Its evaporation leads to the conditioning effect. If it is necessary to suspend the operation of the system, then the blinds simply overlap the tubes. A distinctive feature from other microclimatic systems is that excess heat is not emitted outside. The piping system does not require electricity at all, cooling not only the office complex itself, but also the neighboring territories. The Sony office acts as a kind of reservoir in the center of the metropolis, which softens the heat in an area of several blocks absolutely free of charge.
Memu Meadows House (Kengo Kuma, Memu, 2012). Modern green architecture offers two competing approaches. One is trying to create smart homes in which the most modern technical solutions would be implemented. The epitome of this is the ZCB from Ronald Lou. The second one tries to use modern technical solutions and technologies in the construction of ordinary buildings. One of the fans of this solution is the Japanese Kengo Kuma. In 2002, near Beijing, he built an entire house of bamboo, however, concrete was poured into the stems of the plant. And the last project of the architect was an experimental transparent house that appeared on the island of Hokkaido. The architect created the chise building, which is traditional in the area. The frame of the house was made of larch, and the walls were born from layers of Teflon, fiberglass and insulation. The latter is a product of the recycling of plastic bottles. As a result, the walls of this unusual house not only have excellent sound and heat insulation, but also let in daylight. The architect is trying to prove the right to life of his experiment. If successful, the building will be cloned. Memu Meadows can be a cheap, simple and sustainable home.
International Trade Center (Atkins, Manama, 2008). Tech houses provide maximum energy savings. A shopping center in Bahrain was the first large building to house wind turbines. When two 50-storey skyscrapers were commissioned in 2008, three turbines were installed between them, making the building a real power plant. The whole complex is located on the seashore. The wind is constantly blowing there, and between high-rise buildings it is even stronger. Thanks to this, the thirty-centimeter turbines generate a gigawatt-hour per year. This allows 10% of all energy needs of a high-rise building to be met. This idea - to put turbines on residential buildings, was also liked by other architects. A couple of years later, the Strata SE1 residential building appeared in London, and the Pearl River office skyscraper appeared in Gungzhou. Both wind turbines have become part of an overall strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This is a very valuable strategy, as are waste recycling, water reuse and energy saving technologies. However, not everyone likes this approach. So, at the Strata SE1 building, the shape of the roof resembles a razor, as a result, it even received the title of one of the ugliest buildings in the country.
The Shard (London, Renzo Piano, 2012). The second author of the Pompidou Center in Paris was Renzo Piano. Like his colleague, Norman Foster, he is interested in technology projects. Not so long ago, the main city skyscraper The Shard was opened in London, which resembles the shape of other Piano projects - the New York towers of the Bank of America and the New York Times. At the same time, not only the shape - glass rock, but also the functionality coincides. It is believed that a modern skyscraper should be a city in the middle of a city. It should be a self-sufficient sustainable complex, as economical and efficient as possible. That is why the London building has a maximum of technical solutions, with the exception, perhaps, of solar panels and wind turbines. Thanks to the double facade with air cushion, the building has received thermal insulation. With the help of sensors, ambient light is monitored and the penetration of light into the interior automatically changes. Rainwater is used to control the microclimate and other household needs. The skyscraper recycles its own waste, providing itself largely with electricity. And at the foot of the building there is a large transport interchange. Thanks to its asymmetric shape and reinforced inner core, the Shard is particularly stable. It will be able to withstand a collision with an aircraft and almost any natural disaster. After the events of September 11, such properties of the skyscraper are especially relevant. It's worth the wait to see how the new World Trade Center in New York will respond.
Garage pavilion in Gorky Park (Shigeru Ban, Moscow, 2012). We have already seen a house from waste, but what about paper? Japanese Shigeru Ban is the same age as Kengo Kuma. This architect made a name for himself in building paper houses. Naturally, it is impregnated with a special solution, due to which it does not tear, does not burn and does not get wet. The Japanese have been using this solution for over 15 years. I must say that it appeared not only because of the unrestrained imagination of the master. For example, in 1995, after the earthquake in Kobe, people who lost their homes had to be settled in at least some dwellings. So the project of a collapsible paper house was created. The low price of paper and the ease of production make for the construction of good temporary structures from it. And after they play their role, the houses can simply be recycled. Such qualities are in great demand in places of elimination of the consequences of natural disasters, as well as for the creation of temporary structures. One of the last buildings of the famous Japanese is located in Moscow. Here, in Gorky Park, in autumn 2012 the Garage pavilion was opened. It houses the center of contemporary art, one of the examples of which is the building itself.