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Moscow is the capital of Russia, the largest city not only in the country, but also in Europe. The population of the city as of 01.06.2009 is 10.5 million people. The first mention of Moscow occurs in 1147. Here Yuri Dolgoruky met with his ally Svyatoslav Olgovich. From 1260 Moscow became the center of the principality, and from 1460 - the capital of Russia.
Currently, this city is not only an administrative center, but also a major transport hub; large business and political governing bodies of the country are concentrated in Moscow. Moscow is rightfully considered the most beautiful city in the country, songs and poems are composed about it.
Moscow beckons with itself, it seems, it is a city of great opportunities. But what can I say - you can remember the legendary film "Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears", which just tells about the fate of the provincial women. The very name of the film masterpiece implies that the seekers of fortune in the city will have to face great difficulties, while very few will achieve a stable position and decent work.
It is not surprising that the city, being an object of increased attention, a goal for provincials who want to make a career, has acquired a lot of myths about itself. Let's consider the most popular ones.
Few people love Moscow. Let's turn to statistics. According to a 2007 poll by the Public Opinion Foundation, almost 70% of Russians who do not live in the capital consider Moscow to be just a big city, 22% think that all the best is concentrated there. 36% of the respondents in the regions have a positive attitude to the city, the same number do not feel expressed feelings. But only 20% of respondents have a negative attitude to Moscow. So there is no need to talk about dislike.
Muscovites are unfriendly. Let's turn to statistics again. Two-thirds of non-Muscovites say that Moscow residents are different from other citizens. In the eyes of others, the average Muscovite has a good job, has a stable high income, is hardworking and a material situation corresponding to all this. However, when trying to find out the human qualities of Muscovites, it turned out that Russians more often see negative traits. Thus, 9% of respondents noted snobbery and arrogance, 6% see Muscovites as rude and aggressive, and 3% believe that people in the capital are unfriendly, nervous, selfish and fussy. However, positive qualities were also noted. Thus, culture and intelligence were mentioned by 3%, and friendliness and sociability - 2%.
Muscovites do not like visiting provincials. The phrase "Come in large numbers here" has become legendary and it allegedly characterizes the attitude of Muscovites towards visitors. Although during the Soviet era, Moscow has always been famous for its hospitable attitude to visitors. People who, due to their talent, intelligence and energy, could not prove themselves at home, went to conquer the capital. Moscow, like a hospitable mother, accepted everyone. The native Muscovites have preserved this tradition of hospitality. But with the advent of limiters in Moscow, the situation began to change. This uncultured stratum settled in Moscow, calling themselves Muscovites. It is they, according to sociologists, who carry the main negative to the visitors, not wanting to share their trough. Newcomers suffer major troubles from their own fellows, as well as from the police, in which people from other regions also mainly serve. Another reason is that normal people work quietly, without being conspicuous and not getting into criminal chronicles. When the robbery is committed by persons of Caucasian origin or focuses on the non-Russian citizenship of the criminal, it immediately catches the eye. Although, according to statistics, about 45% of all crimes are committed by visitors. This is due to the fact that criminals are drawn to the place of accumulation of big money. Separating the hospitality and decency of indigenous citizens from the anger and wariness of visitors is difficult, so prepare yourself for a possibly hostile environment where you will have to prove your rights by force. Today, less than 2% of native Muscovites whose great-grandfathers also lived in the city. The number of natives of Russia has also decreased, over the past 20 years their number has decreased to 84%. On the other hand, the number of immigrants from Armenia and Georgia tripled, and from Azerbaijan - five times. In total, the natives of the Caucasian republics make up 3% of the population of Moscow, Ukrainians, for comparison - 2.4%. Thus, it turns out that the majority of Muscovites themselves came relatively recently to the capital. So Muscovites are not born, but become.
There is a very high salary in Moscow. It is a fact that the level of the average salary in the city is much higher than that in the country. Is that in the Far North the level of wages is comparable. A pile of zeros in the amount of salaries beckons and is almost the most significant criterion for moving. However, in addition to the nominal salary, there is also such a thing as the real standard of living. Here it is, just after the move, usually does not grow, and often falls. Visitors to the capital usually buy things, but practically do not use services, unlike residents. Having moved to Moscow, a person immediately becomes a consumer of the entire range of services at by no means cheap tariffs. As a result, the list of goods and services that you can afford remains practically unchanged. It should also be borne in mind that large companies are gradually shifting their focus to regions where they also require highly qualified specialists. The salaries may not be as high as in the capital, but the usual conditions, coupled with decent wages, will ensure a completely comfortable existence. Here are the numbers. In 2009, the average salary in Moscow was about 33 thousand rubles, and it grew by 11-15% over the year, despite the crisis. The average salary in the country at that time was about 15 thousand, and its fall was 25%.
Moscow is a clean, well-groomed city with a developed infrastructure. Tourists visiting Moscow admire the well-groomed roads, painted houses, and the relatively clean river. There are almost no factory chimneys, no landfills, and the weather is relatively mild and warm (if you come from Siberia). However, this is only an external picture. After spending some time in the city, you find that everyday routes run far from the tourist spots. It's hard to breathe on the streets, on the roads there are constant traffic jams, in which you can stand still for up to an hour. Is this conceivable in the regions? A huge number of cars and construction sites create an unbearable noise that simply exhausts the nervous system. One has only to go to the North-West of Moscow and it becomes clear what the city is breathing with. The smoke and glow of Moscow are reflected in the clean air at any time of the day. It is by no means one of the most liveable cities. But the capital is not the dirtiest city in the country. The American nonprofit research institute Blacksmith has compiled a list of the 35 dirtiest cities in the world. Dzerzhinsk, Norilsk and Magnitogorsk got into it.
Moscow is a center of culture and entertainment. Of course, the accumulation of monuments, museums, universities, libraries, as well as entertainment and sports complexes, simply unprecedented for any other Russian city. However, for the majority of Moscow residents, these are just places where guests and tourists gather. Having settled in Moscow and starting to embody the next myth, you find that there is simply not enough time for museums. Entertainment establishments are intended for people of a certain circle and wealth, in order to get there, you must first earn a certain amount of money, acquire connections. In the regions, it will cost much less to relax and the chances of being admitted to, say, a nightclub are much greater.
It's easy to make a career in Moscow. Ever since the time of that Oscar-winning film of ours, it is believed that it is necessary and possible to break through in Moscow. Moscow is a city of great opportunities. You can't argue with that, most of the lucky people really come from the provinces. Perhaps this can be explained by the fact that newcomers are more persistent in achieving their goals, ready for hardships, inconveniences for the sake of moving forward. However, such a paradox is that many businessmen living outside Moscow live and feel much better than Muscovites. At home, they are prominent figures, they can be involved in politics, exert influence. In Moscow, there are thousands of them, and it is very difficult to really stand out even from among successful people. Again, we recall that jobs with "Moscow" salaries are gradually appearing in the regions. The problem is that these myths separate Moscow from the rest of the state, concentrating all the centers of state governance in one place. It's a paradox, but there is no such thing in any large country! For example, in the United States, New York is the business center, Washington is the law, and Las Vegas is entertainment. It's funny, but even the General Staff of the Navy is in Moscow. Although, the transfer, for example, of the same headquarters to the regions - to the Urals, for example, would greatly advance the solution of problems with housing for the military - after all, it is much cheaper to build there.
You can settle to live not in Moscow itself, but somewhere nearby, in Tsaritsyno, for example. Visitors often do not adequately represent Moscow distances. For many, half an hour or an hour is enough to cross their entire hometown. Therefore, visitors are shocked by the fact that you can get to work for 2 hours, and back even more, because of the incessant traffic jams. Many travel on overcrowded trains. Although Tsaritsyno is only the 5th metro station from the ring, there are areas that are much more remote from the center.
It is really inexpensive to rent an apartment (for example, for $ 500) in remote areas. Such prices have not existed in Moscow for a long time. For this money, you can actually rent a room in the same Tsaritsyno, not an apartment. At the same time, you still need to be very careful about the choice of housing, as much as possible to communicate with the hostess and neighbors as much as possible. Clean floors and new wallpaper are far from being an indicator. Known for the case when the hostess can rent all the rooms to visiting guest workers living in several people in a room, while she herself huddled in the kitchen. Such a neighborhood will only bring inconvenience.
It is better to rent an apartment immediately for six months or a year in advance. This is so, but only if you are not dealing with acquaintances or friends, nothing can be guaranteed. The owners' plans can change very dramatically, there may always be a richer tenant and you may be asked to move out as quickly as possible. Therefore, it is recommended to keep in reserve the amount that will allow you to quickly rent another house in an emergency.
It is better to transport all things to the capital at once. Often, the conquerors of Moscow strive to immediately bring all the things with them - dishes, clothes, equipment, thinking that with them the process of adapting to new conditions will be much easier. However, it turns out that frequent travels force and constantly transport with you from place to place all this utensils. Unexpectedly, it may turn out that you have a dozen boxes of things, but there are still flowers, equipment ... You should not carry everything with you, it is recommended to limit yourself to a minimum - much of what you need can be purchased already in Moscow, and having earned money, there will be an opportunity for more expensive shopping, which will make provincial things completely unnecessary.
It's easy to find a job in Moscow. This is one of the most enduring myths. It seems that it is enough just to come to the capital, open a newspaper with ads and get a bunch of tempting offers. Indeed, there is a labor shortage in Moscow. However, when applying for a job, get ready for a tough selection, go through the sieve of interviews. There is a high probability that at first you will have to work for a pittance, and, in an effort to prove yourself and stay in the workplace, sacrifice personal time to achieve goals. When applying for a job in a small company, get ready for the fact that admission can go much more smoothly, but other problems may arise - at the end of the probationary period, you may simply be thrown with money. This is a common phenomenon, and it is very difficult to prevent it. According to statistics, a job seeker in search of a job can spend from a month to a year and a half, conducting an average of two interviews a day.
Muscovites do not go to museums themselves. In one of the popular films, the phrase even sounds that only limiters and guests of the capital go to the Tretyakov Gallery. But according to polls by the All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion, it is the inhabitants of Moscow and St. Petersburg who go to museums more often than others. Cultural institutions, which include theaters, museums and exhibitions, are visited by 36% of Muscovites every year, and about 10% of citizens visit such places every month.
Moscow is the most expensive city in the world. This statement is partially incorrect. Experts of the Swiss bank UBS, having compared prices for goods and services, placed Moscow only in 56th place among the world's most expensive cities. Moscow ranks 41st in terms of the average salary. But for the residence of foreigners for three years in a row, it is Moscow that has been holding the lead among expensive megacities. Even for millionaires, Moscow is not cheap. A hotel similar to a London one will cost 40% more in the Russian capital, while a Louis Vuitton bag is more expensive only in Dubai. But the fact that Moscow is the most expensive city in Russia is beyond doubt.
The biggest traffic jams are in Moscow. But this is true. The average metropolitan traffic jam lasts 1 hour and 26 minutes. For comparison - in St. Petersburg - 54 minutes, in Kiev and Yekaterinburg - 45 minutes. Every day in Moscow there are about 800 congestions, in each of which almost one and a half thousand cars are idle. On average, Muscovites are stuck in traffic jams 6 full days a year!
Moscow is overpopulated like an anthill. Western scientists have calculated the rate of comfortable living in the city, which is 15 people per hectare. In Moscow, there are 120 inhabitants per unit of area! Let's compare these numbers with other cities. In Chicago - 16 people, In Paris - 62, New York and St. Petersburg - 40. Thus, Moscow can really be considered an overpopulated city.